”A nation that has an extractive corrupt system always leads to a vendor state as only a few that govern that state have the power to prosper from it…..but a nation that has an inclusive political and economic system results In prosperity for all that are willing to work for this is what I believe to should be the way a nation should be.”- Tinashe Gwariro
After the recent events on the African continent from the Boko Haram to Xenophobia to the recent surge of vendor in the city streets of African states especially in Zimbabwe. All of these events I believe all have one thing in common, that is the failed institutions that govern those states affected by these events. I believe that it’s the perfect time to bring this issue I’ve held off for so long and that is the Institutions that govern a nation or society.
In my last post on Nation building I talked about the size of government concluding that any nation needs a government that is in accordance to the needs of its citizens and one that does not excessively become a tax burden on that society. Today I talk about the institutions that matter to a society well the basic institutions necessary for a society to be governed and become prosperous.
Now sit down and read because I am about to teach you something. Any nation great or small should always have institutions that are as follows:
- Welfare and Education
- Parliamentary or Congressional
- Executive Branch
- Electoral Process
- Security apparatus
For a society to be strong it must have the option to choose its economic path. Let’s face it Communism and Socialism are tried and failed experiments. North Korea is an example; China is slowly shifting away from its Command economics. Every nation needs an inclusive economic system where there is equal opportunity to advance under the citizens own will power and personal ability. But this can only happen when the economic institutions in place create the incentive to work and profit. From my understanding of Daron Acemoglu in his book Why Nations Fail says that these incentives are “allowance of private property, the allowance to keep most of profit from enterprise, the choice to dictate economic direction of the citizen themselves.” However if the economic institutions that are in place promote corruption, expensive venture, there is no security of private property or protection from the state from property take overs then a society will find no need at all to become prosperous.
But in every society the leadership needs to provide support to the citizenry to start their entrepreneurial ventures. This includes having a very sound Banking system with loan interest rates being of manageable cost, government must always provide for public investment when private investment and loans becomes impossible for the citizenry. Most importantly government must always create rules and laws that ensure that no citizen is taken advantage off by corrupt officials, from the citizens themselves and by large corporations that will always block the market from entry by Small to Medium Enterprise (SME). However to much regulation and government red tape can also become a burden on the citizen rather than an incentive but regulation is necessary for the protection of all.
It is only when such measures are in place that a society can begin to benefit from the economic opportunities that are there in that country. Economic institutions that matter are the banking system that provides financial access to all, an Anti – Corruption Body that is independent of the government especially the executive branch, financial services and entrepreneurial education business centers that aid in helping the citizenry start-maintain-succeed in their ventures.
“What is a society without the rule of law, for without rule of law people just become a bunch of wild animals that react on impulse, even nature itself has laws that govern it.”- Tinashe Gwariro
For a nation to become prosperous it needs a level of peace and tranquility with equal opportunity. That is where an effective judicial system can provide law and order and ensure that equality with in a society. No country in the world can govern without it and the Laws in that country are to be seen as the supreme standard for any decision to be made upon those who commit harm, commit corruption, and endanger the society. For it to be equal no one including the head of state of that country should be exempt from the rule of law. Punishment must fit the crime and must always be humane.
Above all the powers of the Supreme Court must be withheld in the hands of the society for it is the society that decides who is guilty or innocent and that can only be done by having Supreme Court judges to be elected or nominated through a special election where the nations legal personnel i.e. lawyers, attorneys, magistrates or whatever they are called in the respective nation. This ensures that the executive branch has no say on choice and limits its ability to corrupt the system as the nation’s legal experts are the ones that decide who makes judgment. Only through the nations Congress or Parliament can the final decision on who becomes a judge in the highest court of the land as the power on the people flows through the members that represent them In that congress or parliament.
“An educated citizenry will always ensure a nation survives for millennia for it will always be politically engaged, skilled enough to evolve and ensure a steady flow of learned leaders that will take the nation to its next step of greatness and prosperity”- Tinashe Gwariro
Welfare and education
Education is vital especially when a nation creates an inclusive political and economic system. For it is education that ensures its citizens are prepared to govern itself, create the enterprise that create the jobs for the society, ensure that the citizens have the skill sets that are required in an ever developing economy. Education must always be industry based and should start from an early age. Strong science education will ensure that technological innovation doesn’t run out in a country and medical advancements in vaccine and cures are always available, strong education in Human sciences will ensure that a society will create the right future leaders who understand humanity and its existence and how a society should function for a nation to be strong it is here that leaders are born, strong economics and business education will ensure that a society has business leaders that are always creating sound sustainable business decisions and that jobs are created through their entrepreneurial efforts. The list goes on but it is those three that I believe to be the most needed in a society.
However some failed states have failed becomes poor educated citizenry is unable to stand up to the tyrannical regimes that oppress them. When citizens are ignorant and devoid of knowledge how will they know that the leadership is right or wrong for them. “One must always wonder…if a the leadership does not take education seriously does it mean they can’t manage or is it because the elite few that govern find it easier to rule an ignorant masses that are zombie like and devoid of knowledge and that they fear an educated masses will know when and how to revolt” – Tinashe Gwariro
Therefore it is essential that the state provides for an industry focused degree programs, High school education that is globalized and an early learning environment for infants so they can develop from an early stage. The state should ensure that the public schools can match or compete with the standards of private institutions so that children from low income homes can also benefit from a good education like their wealthier counterparts. However teachers and schools must be under pressure always to take responsibility to ensure grades are high and graduations happen more than failures and drop outs. I propose that nations force children to stay in school until they receive that nations’ most basic education in other words ban school drop outs.
“Every citizen should have access to basic health care, housing, water, food and psychological assistance….for he or she will just become a walking disease and a problem to society”– Tinashe Gwariro
We can debate all we want but at the end of the day we all know that basics of living are necessary. But what we can debate is how far assistance should happen and for whom. Now I believe no matter who you are you all deserve to have food, water, housing and psychological assistance. In other words welfare of state is necessary. When a citizen has access to such things their mind has more freedom to focus on other matters, saving, entrepreneurship, political ambition among other things that can aid in the development of themselves and the state as a whole. People who have lost their jobs due to failed companies should be given assistance from the state after all they were paying their fair share of taxes all along.
The disabled are in some but not all cases incapable of providing for themselves therefore they are the ones the state needs to assist. Ensuring that they have the basic necessities to live and they are not discriminated by other citizens. Providing for the homeless is essential. Imagine for a moment if there was some form of state housing for the homeless along with assistance to find work. How many petty criminals would the state remove of the streets?
Healthcare is vital whether provided by the state or through private health firms. What matters is affordable health care, making it possible for anyone to be able to cover their medical costs without having to make a choice between health and food or health and paying the bills. It is therefore necessary that Hospitals and clinics are built, rapid response teams are there and health education is done. Many of the virus and disease out breaks on the African continent is due to the fact that many are ignorant of how to avoid such out breaks and also the lack of an organized health system is another reason
“It is out of politics that determines who gets to rule, when to rule and how to rule….it is out of the society that leaders are born and created and put into the politics.….if the society is incapable, corrupt and not unified so will its leaders be incapable and corrupt”– Tinashe Gwariro
For a society wants to create a state that is prosperous and united….its politics must be inclusive, free, equal and fair. No one should be subject to isolation from the nation’s politics. According to the book Why Nations Fail by Daron Acemoglu the reason why South Korea and North Korea, Nogales in the United States and Nogales in Mexico are different in terms of prosperity, security and equality is because of different politics.
It is very clear that Nations that are poor are the ones that have Politics that is isolationist, where opposition is restricted or nonexistent. Where fear is made by the leaders that take advantage of an incapable society and a democratic process that is therefore turned into a tyrannical political system.
Let’s face it the discussion can go on and on. On how or what politics should exist with in a society to build a strong nation. But I will put my points out there and then the reader will decide to agree, disagree or add on.
The electoral process must mirror the economic system. If the economics is inclusive, free and there is incentive and security from seizure from the state…so should the politics be inclusive, free of choice and fair, there should be security from prosecution of political choice and belief, above all there should be an incentive to vote. After all it is the vote of the citizen that determines what direction the nation should take. Thus the politician and statesmen should offer clear sound policies and convince the citizen to vote and they should also deliver on those promises.
The executive branch and the parliament/congress must always remember that they are elected and they must conduct the people’s business. As I said before it is out of society that leaders are born and created. Failure to do so will result in a state that has leaders that create and extractive economic system, ruthless oppressive regime and poor society that is uneducated. Meaning the country over a long term will find it difficult to change from its way of governance as the society over time will begin to exhibit the tyrannical way of leadership for generations to come. In my previous blog I talked about the size of government. It must be remembered that the size of government needs to be in accordance of the needs of the people. In all fairness there is no need for irrelevant ministries, departments and positions. Seriously a Ministry of Climate is irrelevant, the nations environment should be protected by legislation and not by a whole ministry or department like what are they going to do, dictate when it rains and doesn’t?
Finance/Treasury, Defense/Security apparatus, internal services, transportation/infrastructure, Education, Health department and the president and his deputies. These are should make up an executive branch, everything else is either done through Parliamentary oversight, pieces of legislation to protect or left to the city councils and or the people to take upon the responsibility. Otherwise failed states have bloated irrelevant departments of the executive branch which have made the government ineffective and heavily corrupt.
“A society that fears domestic violence and an invasion from enemies abroad will forever live in fear and will focus more on war and survival than nation building and prosperity”– Tinashe Gwariro
What is a country if it is at war with itself, or fears its neighbors. I believe in the philosophy peace through strength. If your enemies know that your country can’t be invaded easily that the cost of war with your state is staggering as your security apparatus has the ability to defend that society and drag the war for years on end. Those enemies will not invade.
The state must provide for an adequate police one that is there to provide security for the society and maintain public order. But not to thwart political opposition and be used as a tool to oppress the citizens. Oppression of the citizenry over time can create a ticking revolting time bomb. As society overtime can find the courage to fight back leading to chaos and death that is not necessary in nation building. As I said in my previous blog “A man was born free, he should live free or he will die fighting for his freedom”. Security apparatus must be to maintain peace from those that want to commit harm. Failed states are those that oppress their citizens through the security apparatus. For what is meant to be security becomes a state of fear.
It is therefore necessary to have a strong military that is ready to respond to foreign threats, on that is educated and is reminded that it serves the people and is not there to do the bidding of the elite few, a police force that is citizen friendly on that inspires the youth to maintain order and peace, that promotes coexistence, a police force that is there to maintain law and order regardless of who did the crime. An in intelligence service that always provides the leadership with the right information and threat assessments so that the nation is not caught flat foot and attacked but is on its toes ready for the evolving threats that exist.
I hope I have put some ideas in your head and made you question. Does my government do enough for me as a citizen? Do the institutions that are there create prosperity and security? Above all is there a political process that is inclusive and free as it is a society through its game of politics that dictates how its leaders will govern. If so then debate until next time world citizens……….NOW BEGIN TO BUILD YOUR NATIONS.
REMEMBER WE ARE THE FEDERATION!!!!!